YouTube Picks (#40) – Master Musician: Martin Hayes

Martin Hayes (born 4 July 1962) is an Irish Fiddler from County Clare. Hayes was born into a musical family in Maghera, a village in the parish of Killanena in East Co. Clare. His father, P.J. Hayes, was a noted fiddle player and his grandmother played the concertina.   His father and his uncle Paddy Canny, also an influential fiddler, were among the founders of the Tulla Ceili Band in 1946. P.J. Hayes led the band from 1952 until shortly before his death in 2001. Martin Hayes started playing the fiddle at the age of seven, taught by his father. At 13 he won his first of six All-Ireland Fiddle Competitions. He is one of only three fiddlers ever to be named  All-Ireland Fiddle Champion in the senior division in two consecutive years (1981 and 1982).[2] He joined the Tulla Céilí Band as a teenager and played in the band for seven years. Hayes moved to Chicago in 1985 and became active in the Irish traditional music scene there. He was a regular performer at weekly   jam session organized by Chicago fiddler Liz Carroll, who later described him as belonging to “that very narrow set of performers from any musical genre – not just Irish – whose every note is perfect”.  In 1993 Hayes moved to Seattle , where he lived until 2005. In 1996 Hayes formed an acoustic duo with Dennis Cahill, developing an “unrushed, lyrical, highly expressive interpretation” of traditional Irish music. Hayes and Cahill have released three recordings on the Green Linnet label: The Lonesome Touch (1997), Live in Seattle (1999), and Welcome Here Again (2008)…. Wikipedia

The Lonesome Touch (1997, Green Linnet #1127) This is the recording that first caught my attention with it’s exquisite sound and the magical interplay of Martin’s fiddle and Dennis Cahill’s  guitar accompaniment. This is one of the great musical duos of recent years and here is a clip of the duo in full flight on National Public Radio.

Martin and Denis play music that is solidly in the Irish tradition but it doesn’t stop there. They are continually exploring the boundary’s of their traditions. Here are a couple of examples of recent explorations. The first is an experimental quartet with bass clarinet player  Doug Wieselman and  viola player Liz Knowles.

“Taking leaps into the unknown and relishing their unpredictability: Martin Hayes’s appetite for collaboration with musicians from across the spectrum of the tradition and beyond is insatiable. His latest project is a head-turner. Prick up your ears and you’ll hear bass clarinet sidling up alongside fiddles (and Dennis Cahill’s guitar) so that tunes intimately known become something new. Opener The Boy in the Gap is a masterclass in interpretation that invigorates a familiar reel. American jazz clarinettist Doug Wieselman and American classical violinist and viola player Liz Knowles are Hayes and Cahill’s dance partners, and the four engage in some fine musical moves. Present here in abundance, as it is in The Gloaming and in the duo’s repertoire, is that stealthy building of a tune: unearthing its melodic essence and letting it blossom slowly, with intent. Circling the tunes are the combined forces of Hayes’s deceptively simple fiddle lines and Wieselman’s intuitive embroidering, the bass clarinet amplifying the internal logic of the tune as if they’ve been lifelong bedfellows. Knowles’s mix of playfulness and counterpoint is a delight throughout. It’s yet another thought-provoking escapade to relish from Hayes”

The second clip was recorded on a trip to India with Sarod player Mathew Noone.

@@@@@@@@@@@@@@

 

Vaccines – The Verdict is in.

First of all, a definition: “A vaccine is a biological preparation that provides active acquired immunity for a particular infectious disease. A vaccine typically contains an agent that resembles a disease-causing microorganism and is often made from weakened or killed forms of the microbe, its toxins, or one of its surface proteins. The agent stimulates the body’s immune system to recognize the agent as a threat, destroy it, and to further recognize and destroy any of the microorganisms associated with that agent that it may encounter in the future. Vaccines can be prophylactic (to prevent or ameliorate the effects of a future infection by a natural or “wild” pathogen), or therapeutic (to fight a disease that has already occurred, such as cancer)”….. Wikipedia

And a little history: “The terms vaccine and vaccination are derived from Variolae vaccinae (smallpox of the cow), the term devised by Edward Jenner (who both developed the concept of vaccines and created the first vaccine) to denote cowpox. He used the phrase in 1798 for the long title of his Inquiry into the Variolae vaccinae Known as the Cow Pox, in which he described the protective effect of cowpox against Smallpox. In 1881, to honor Jenner, Louis Pasteur proposed that the terms should be extended to cover the new protective inoculations then being developed.”  …Wikipedia

How they work: There is overwhelming scientific consensus that vaccines are a very safe and effective way to fight and eradicate infectious diseases. The immune system recognizes vaccine agents as foreign, destroys them, and “remembers” them. When the virulent version of an agent is encountered, the body recognizes the protein coat on the virus, and thus is prepared to respond, by first neutralizing the target agent before it can enter cells, and secondly by recognizing and destroying infected cells before that agent can multiply to vast numbers.”……..  Wikipedia

A List of Vaccines:

  • Adenovirus
  • Anthrax
  • Cholera
  • Diphtheria
  • Hepatitis A
  • Hepatitis B
  • Haemophilus Influenza
  • Human Papillomavirus (HPV)
  • Seasonal Influenza
  • Japanese Encephalitis
  • Measles
  • Meningococcal
  • Mumps
  • Pertussis
  • Pneumococcal
  • Polio
  • Rabies
  • Rotovirus
  • Rubella
  • Shingles
  • Smallpox
  • Tetanus
  • Tuberculosis
  • Typhoid Fever
  • Varicella
  • Yellow Fever

Centers for Disase Control and Prevention, recommends routine vaccination of children against Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B, Polio, Mumps, Measles, Rubella, Diphtheria, Pertussis, Tetanus, Chickenpox, Rotovirus, Influenza, Meningococcal Disease and Pneumonia. When it comes to death and disease the military knows the score. On the battlefield the military suffer more casualties from disease than from bullets, bombs and enemy activities. Vaccines are an essential tool in maintaining healthy, fit fighting units.

Wars, Disease and Natural Disasters

That’s the way it was –…….. medical skills were in great demand as a succession of diseases – influenza, mumps, whooping cough, scarlet fever, measles, smallpox and cholera ravaged the Canadian North-West between 1830 and 1850. Influenza epidemics occurred six times in that twenty year period. The largest toil was on women, because they were the main care givers, and on the children and elderly because they were the most venerable. In 1842 to 1843, a whooping cough epidemic was immediately followed by Scarlet Fever…… The outbreak was  followed by another fever in 1844, and many more died from the unnamed scourge. Mortality rates from Measles epidemic of 1846-1847 was very high and complications from the disease added to the heavy loss of life. In 1846, in the Red River Valley, three epidemics hit in quick succession – influenza, measles and cholera.” ………. from Jean Teillet’s The North-West is Our Mother (A History of the Metis Natkion ).    As I said that’s the way it was. Of course improvements to basic hygiene and sanitation has had an impact but the advances in vaccines and vaccination also had a large positive effect on the health in the Canadian North-West and across the world. By the time my generation came to the fore in the mid to late twentieth century most of the “water-borne ” and childhood diseases in the modern world had been largely defeated. Within my life time the following major medical successes were achieved.

  • Smallpox – The world wide eradication of Smallpox, largely by vaccination in the late 20th century, is one of the major triumphs of modern medicine. The disease has a mortality rate of around 30% in adults and higher in babies. Often those who survived had extensive scaring of their skin, and some were left blind, The last naturally occurring case was diagnosed in October 1977, and the WHO certified the global eradication of the disease in 1980. Smallpox outbreaks have occurred though out recorded history and is one of the diseases responsible for the decimation of native populations in the new world. The disease is responsible for 300  million deaths in the 20th century and as late as 1967 fifteen million cases were occurring each year. Smallpox is one of two infectious diseases to have been eradicated, the other being rinderpest in 2011. Rinderpest is a devastating viral infection that infects livestock.
  • Polio – Poliomyelitis, commonly shortened to polio, is an infectious disease caused by the polio virus. Epidemics of the disease have occurred though out modern history and a its peak in the 1940s and 1950s, polio would paralyze or kill over half a million people worldwide every year. The development of two polio vaccines has eliminated wild poliomyelitis in all but two countries (Afghanistan and Pakistan). This is another stunning success for vaccines. In my youth parents lived in fear of the polio virus infecting their children.
  • Rubella also known as German measles or three-day measles, is an infection caused by the rubella virus. This disease, while very contagious,  is often mild with half of people not realizing that they are infected. It is a common infection in many parts of the world . Rubella. In the early days of medicine it was not considered a particularly toxic infection. However, in 1940, following a widespread epidemic of rubella in Australia the ophthalmologist Norman McAllister Gregg found 78 cases of congenital cataracts in infants and 68 of them were born to mothers who had caught rubella in early pregnancy. He described a variety of problems now known as Cogenital Rubella Syndrome (CRS) and noticed that the earlier the mother was infected, the worse the damage was. CRS is the main reason a vaccine for rubella was developed. There was a pandemic of rubella between 1962 and 1965, starting in Europe and spreading to the United States. In the years 1964–65, the United States had an estimated 12.5 million rubella cases. This led to 11,000 miscarriages or therapeutic abortions and 20,000 cases of congenital rubella syndrome. Of these, 2,100 died as neonates, 12,000 were deaf, 3,580 were blind, and 1,800 were intellectually disabled. In New York alone, CRS affected 1% of all births.The virus was isolated in tissue culture in 1962 by two separate groups led by physicians Paul Douglas Parkman and Thomas  Huckle Weller. In 1969, a live attenuated virus vaccine was licensed.In the early 1970s, a triple vaccine containing attenuated measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) viruses was introduced. By 2006, confirmed cases in the Americas had dropped below 3000 a year. Rates of disease have decreased in many areas as a result of vaccination.There are ongoing efforts to eliminate the disease globally. In April 2015 the WHO declared the Americas free of rubella transmission. However, a 2007 outbreak in Argentina, Brazil, and Chile pushed the cases to 13,000 that year. However, due to misinformation and aggressive anti-vaccination campaigns in recent years immunization rates have dropped and there have been some serious outbreaks in the USA. If the immunization rates can be increased there is still a possibility that the virus can be eradicated.
  • Human papillomavirus (HPV). Most of us can add two and two and come up with four. Very few of us can come up with reasons why in certain situations 2+2 = 4. In disease situations epidemiologists are the folks that come up with the exact reasons why 2+2=4. Back in the day epidemiologists noted that certain population groups had low incidences of cervical cancer. On closer investigation they determined that the low incidence was associated with low levels of sexual activity, specifically that turned out to be with women in religious orders.  From that premise it was logical to come to the conclusion that a sexually transmitted infectious agent could be responsible for  cervical cancer. Eventually numerous strains of human papillomavirus were identified as the causative agent of the most common sexually transmitted infections in the United States and eventually a vaccine was developed to combat the virus and the associated diseases. Some health effects caused by HPV can be prevented by the HPV vaccines. Nearly all cases of cervical cancer  are associated with HPV infection, with two types, HPV16 and HPV18, present in 70% of cases.  It is estimated that the vaccines may prevent 70% of cervical cancer, 80% of anal cancer, 60% of  vaginal cancer, 40% of vulvar cancer   and possibly some mouth cancer, they additionally prevent some genital warts, with the quadrivalent and nonavalent vaccines that protect against HPV types HPV-6 and HPV-11 providing greater protection. The vaccine was first developed by the University of Queensland in Australia. The first HPV vaccine became available in 2006. As of 2017, 71 countries include it in their routine vaccinations, at least for girls. It is on the WHO list of essential medicines.  A number of countries have implemented nation wide vaccination programs and the African country Rwanda has an ambitious target of eliminating cervical cancer nation wide with an aggressive immunization program.

The eradication of disease and the development of vaccines continues. The current big challenge is the development and distribution of a vaccine for the Covid -19 virus. The challenge “hit the pavement” in early January and because of the spectacular applications of molecular biology to the development of  Messenger RNA vaccines the possibility of a world wide roll out of a massive immunization program is about to be realized.

However, despite all the past successes and the current positive indicators the battle is far from over. The conspiracy theorists and sceptics are in full throttle with some of the most ridiculous assertions being bandied about. “Vaccines don’t work”, “Vaccines kill more people than they save”, “Covid pandemic is a fraud , it doesn’t exist”, “it’s a plot to undermine personal freedoms and control the population”, “It’s big pharmacy companies out to generate massive profits” and so on…………

When the denials come to the surface remember the conspiracy play book and act and think accordingly.

In brief, the six principal plays in the conspiracy arsenal playbook are:

  1. Doubt the Science eg the doubts about climate change.
  2. Question Scientists’ Motives and Integrity eg They are only in it for the money and the prestige
  3. Magnify Disagreements among Scientists and Cite Gadflies as Authorities. eg look how long it took to defeat the tobacco companies in their denial of the link between smoking and cancer.
  4. Exaggerate Potential Harm eg vaccines kill more people than they save or vaccines cause autism. Both claims are blatantly false.
  5. Appeal to Personal Freedom, The wearing of a cloth mask infringes on my personal freedom to infect my neighbor.
  6. Reject Whatever Would Repudiate A Key Philosophy eg If I believe in the literal interpretation of the bible then evolution is not possible. On that note I would like to add there is confusion between theory and facts. The Theory of Natural Selection is a theory and has not been proven and one can be free to acknowledge or reject the premise of the theory. On the other hand evolution is a fact based on massive amounts of hard scientific data and must be held to be true.

@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@

SO IN SUMMARY – THE VERDICT IS IN. HISTORICALLY VACCINES HAVE PROVEN TO BE EFFECTIVE AND SAFE AND WE WOULD BE FOOLS TO REJECT THEM.

@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@

Fisher Peak Winter Ale Concert Series – 2020

@@@@@@@@@@@

FIRST CONCERT OF THE FIFTH SEASON – January 22, 2020

OPENING ACT – TALL TIMBERS featuring Drew Prinn on vocals; Ken Vargas on guitars and vocals; Landon Vargas on guitars, Ukulele, congas and vocals.

         

MAIN ACT – KOOTENAY LATELY featuring Pam Ruby on vocals; Theresa Reichert on upright bass; Bryan Reichert on guitar and Chad Andriowski on drums and backing tracks.

        

    

Thanks must go to the organizing committee of Fisher Peak Performing Arts Society, Key City staff and volunteers and all the sponsors of this series.

@@@@@@@@@@@

SECOND CONCERT OF THE FIFTH SEASON – Wednesday February 19, 2020

OPENING ACT –  Douglas Francis Mitchell: Vocal, Banjo, Guitar and Songwriter extraordinaire

Over the years Canada has been blessed with many, many singer/song writers who often defy pop culture expectations to produce songs and stories that entertain and truly document the extraordinary richness of the Canadian cultural mosaic. To the list of Gordon Lightfoot, Valdy, Murray McLauglan, Ron Hynes, Stan Rogers and others we can now add the name Douglas Francis Mitchell. Just the name of his songs tells a story. Heiden Guitar  pays homage to a recently acquired instrument from the master Creston Luthier Michael Heiden; Rocky Mountain View is a happy reflection of local geography; Open Happiness  and ode to demon drink (Coca Cola); Laughter of the Heart, Three Chords and the Truth, Change of Pace  and the comic masterpieces Plumber Troubles, Prairie Oysters and Sibling Rivalry. With his songs and stories  this open act was a tough act to follow.

 

MAIN ACT – CARMANAH – all the way from Vancouver Island with a musical mix that I can only describe as Van-Isle Reggae (what ever that means). The band featured Laura Mitic on guitar, vocal and fiddle; Lo Waight – back up vocals and percussion; Mike Baker – Keyboard and vocals; Pat Ferguson – guitar and vocals; Jamil Demers – bass and Graham Keehn. They presented a program of mostly original material.

   

  

   

   

@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@

POST SCRIPT

@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@

Kootenay Fall Fair – Dogs and Street Musicians

Fort Steele Fall Fair  is held in the shadow of Fisher Peak and the Southern Rocky Mountains. It is an annual event usually held on the second Sunday in September. The mornings are usually cool, sometimes a touch of frost, but there is always more than good chance of bright sunny day. This particular Sunday it was a little overcast but other wise still a beautiful day. It was, as usual, a good day to amble around the park, take in the sights and sounds and enjoy some of the best Cinnamon Buns on the planet. Also there was the sonic background of a variety of street musicians playing laid back “folky” country music. An added attraction this year was the dog show. Patrons of the Fair took the opportunity to show off their pets. From the tiniest of tiny dogs to dogs big enough to support a saddle. They were all there, running, jumping and just being dogs. For a pensioner the fee was $5 for a day of home spun entertainment  and it was money well spent. Here a just few shots of a laid back late summer day at Fort Steel.

                 

Steve Knowles – Musician

 

Steve Knowles – Musician

Rollie – Musician

       

@@@@@@@@@@@@@@

Cecile Larochelle – “Fine and Mellow”

This was the third concert in the Fall Jazz and Blues Series  and it was a fine evening of mainstream jazz with vocalist Cecile Larochelle, Don Clark (Trumpet and Fluegelhorn), Paul Landsberg (Guitar), Rob Fahie
(Bass) and Graham Tracey  (Drums). The evening kicked off with a straight ahead instrumental version of Somewhere there’s Music. Cecile  sang Sunday Kind of Love and from then on out it was an evening of mostly familiar songs with solid solos from the members of the band.  Songs included Dancing Cheek to Cheek, Thought About You, Honeysuckle Rose (featuring some great brush work on the drums and Wes Montgomery riffs on guitar), Stormy Monday, Sweet Georgia Brown (great bass solo), This Masquerade (nice Fluegelhorn solo), Roberta Flack’s Will You Love me Tomorrow?, Bye Bye Blackbird, Glory of Love / Makin’ Whoopee, Quiet Nights, Do Nothing ‘Til You Hear from me, Autumn Leaves  (with some nice Bass playing), The Nearness of You and the classic Billie Holiday Blues Fine and Mellow. 

With such a fine bunch of musicians on stage it hardly seems fair to single out any particular performer for special mention but for me to hear and appreciate Graham Tracey playing brushes on his drum kit was a real treat. I believe all drummers should have their sticks broken until such times they have mastered the art of playing brushes.


This was the last concert in the season and once again thanks should go to all the volunteers and merchants who without their support the series would not be possible.

@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@

YouTube Picks (#22) – More Mandolin Music

When trolling around the internet for Mandolin music and performances the name Marissa Carroll is one that pops up frequently. She is a young Australian musician (b1992) who began playing mandolin at the age of ten and has progressed rapidly to her current status as a much in demand soloist. With mandolin as her principal instrument Marissa completed her degree in music at the University of Queensland in 2012. She plays on a prized vintage Lyon and Healy mandolin from the early 1920s. a German bowl-back mandolin by Klaus Knorr and a Baroque mandolino by Alex Vervaert. Here are a couple of YouTube clips …….

The sound from the above ensemble reminds me very much of the famous Ida Presti / Alexander Lagoya classical guitar duo that was much recorded before Ida’s death in 1967. And now for a little bit of Bach.

There are numerous YouTube performances of Melissa performing in a duo with the classical guitarist Joel Woods. Note the guitar stand used by Joel Woods. This particular device is becoming popular with classical guitarists. Although best known as a classical mandolinist in this  third video the duo is performing a well known Brazilian Choro composition by Ernesto Nazareth.

@@@@@@@@@@@

Also, while trolling mandolin performances I came across this YouTube of Mochalova. I have not been able to find any information on the lady. Although I find her body language a little over the top  one can’t dispute the quality of her playing.

@@@@@@@@@@@

Dean Smith Quartet at Frank’s Restaurant

A fine and mellow Christmas at Frank’s Restaurant in Cranbrook with the Dean (Dino) Smith Quartet featuring Dean Smith on Guitar,Trombone and Vocals; Zach Smith on Alto Sax;  Ben Smith on Bass and Guitar and Jared Zimmer on Drums. The favorite Christmas carols, pop songs and show tunes of past eras were all there – We Three Kings, Let it Snow, Frosty the Snowman, Walking in a Winter Wonderland, Dreaming of a White Christmas, Joy to the World, Jingle Bells and Greensleeves and many, many more. 

  

Saturday, December 23, 2017 may have been very frosty outside (minus 20 degrees centigrade) but inside Frank’s it was was warm, cosy and very “Christmassy”.

@@@@@@@@@@@@@@

Read any Good Books Lately (#10) – Author Kristin Hannah

For those unfamiliar with this author, Kristin Hannah (born September 25, 1960) is an award-winning and bestselling American Writer, who has won numerous awards, including the Golden Heart, the Maggie, and the 1996 National Reader’s Choice award. Hannah was born in California. She graduated from law school in Washington and practiced law in Seattle before becoming a full-time writer. She lives on Bainbridge Island Washington] with her husband and their son. She is a prolific writer with over twenty novels to her credit and they include the following ….. Wikipedia

  • A Handful of Heaven (July 1991)
  • The Enchantment (June 1992)
  • Once in Every Life (December 1992)
  • If You Believe (December 1993)
  • When Lightnings Strikes (October 1994)
  • Waiting for the Moon (September 1995)
  • Home Again (October 1996)
  • On Mystic Lake (February 1999)
  • Angel Falls (April 2000)
  • Summer Island (March 2001)
  • Distant Shores (July 2002)
  • Between Sisters (April 2003)
  • The Things We Do for Love (June 2004)
  • Comfort and Joy (October 2005)
  • Magic Hour (February 2006)
  • Firefly Lane (2008)
  • True Colors (2009)
  • Winter Garden (2010)
  • Night Road (March 2011)
  • Home Front (2012)
  • Fly Away (2013)
  • The Nightingale (2015)

I read The Nightingale  about a year ago. The novel is set in France during the resistance and I found it to be a real page turner. I recommended it to number of my friends and all agreed with my opinion. So, it was only natural that I should add her other novels to my reading list. I have been a little reluctant to plunge right in as her novels tend to be emotional roller coasters that become so engaging that the normal activities of day to day living get pushed into the background. Things like sleeping just gets in the way of finding out what happens next. But I did take the plunge into her 2006 novel Magic Hour and as expected I didn’t get much sleep. From “go to woe” I finished the novel in 24 hours. This is what Amazon has to say about the novel –

“In the rugged Pacific Northwest lies the Olympic National Forest—nearly a million acres of impenetrable darkness and impossible beauty. From deep within this old growth forest, a six-year-old girl appears. Speechless and alone, she offers no clue as to her identity, no hint of her past. Having retreated to her western Washington hometown after a scandal left her career in ruins, child psychiatrist Dr. Julia Cates is determined to free the extraordinary little girl she calls Alice from a prison of unimaginable fear and isolation. To reach her, Julia must discover the truth about Alice’s past—although doing so requires help from Julia’s estranged sister, a local police officer. The shocking facts of Alice’s life test the limits of Julia’s faith and strength, even as she struggles to make a home for Alice—and for herself. In Magic Hour, Kristin Hannah creates one of her most beloved characters, and delivers an incandescent story about the resilience of the human spirit, the triumph of hope, and the meaning of home.”

I am not a literary critic and I neither have the back ground or the inclination to critique or analyse books in depth. My criteria for literary fiction is fairly straight forward – Is the plot believable? are the characters compelling and well developed? Do I have an over riding compulsion not to put the book down? and do I lose sleep in the process of reading?  Based on these criteria Magic Hour is a 10 out of 10 winner.

Enjoy ……………………………………. I will need to get some sleep and acquire some breathing space before I take on another Kristin Hannah novel

@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@

YouTube Pick (#18) – THE PARTING GLASS

When it comes to Irish Tenors I tend not to like them. When it comes to the song Danny Boy then Lord spare me enough is enough. And yet when I hear the Irish Ballad The Parting Glass my objections to syrupy Irish Ballads melts away. Here is an exceptional choral version of a song that has been a favorite of Irish Tenors and folk singers for many a year. It is a version done by the UCD Choral Scholars – “The Choral Scholars of University College Dublin, under the artistic direction of Desmond Earley, is Ireland’s leading collegiate choral ensemble. With a large repertoire ranging from art to popular music, and stretching from the medieval to the contemporary in style, this choir gives many concerts throughout the academic year, both in Ireland and abroad. Following a competitive selection process each September, eighteen gifted students are awarded a scholarship, with recipients of the award coming from a range of academic disciplines across the university, from Music to Medicine, Law, Agricultural Science, Commerce and Engineering.”  – Wikipedia

For pure emotion check the following video – Choir singers from University of Wisconsin Eau-Claire Women’s Concert Chorale surprised locals of Peadar O’Donnell’s bar in Derry with their beautiful rendition of The Parting Glass.

And when you remove the syrup from the song this is what you get – Ronnie Drew of the Dubliners.  Remember that before the Pogues there was the Dubliners…….

@@@@@@@@@@@@@@